Distributed Marking in Sport Corrections: A Conversation Analysis of Synchronized Swimming

Volume 16
Issue 3
Dafne Muntanyola-Saura
This paper is an empirically based contribution on the communication of corrections in synchronized swimming. Our claim is that marking is a socially organized skill that can be found in sports corrections. Through video-aided ethnographic work, which includes observation and interviewing the Spanish Olympic team for four months, we captured standardized communication patterns. Conversation Analysis allows us to locate the pathways of communication modalities in real professional trainings. We analyzed the video of the training sessions with ELAN software for micro-interactions. Our results show that the modalities of speech, marking, gesture and gaze appear in synchronized swimming. There is an epistemological asymmetry between the trainer and the swimmers as experts from different domains. Still, we found instances of distributed marking in gaze behavior. Moreover, marking for others in synchronized swimming is a modality that goes beyond individual reflexivity and recall. Corrections in sports training are a product of socially managed turn taking.

Keywords: Keywords: Ethnography, Conversation Analysis, Distributed Cognition, Marking, Multimodality, ELAN, Sports