Schizophrenia and the Dysfunctional Brain

Year
2010
Volume 11
Issue 2
Pages
215-246
Authors
Justin Garson
Abstract
Scientists, philosophers, and even the lay public commonly accept that schizophrenia stems from a biological or internal 'dysfunction.' However, this assessment is typically accompanied neither by well-defined criteria for determining that something is dysfunctional nor empirical evidence that schizophrenia satisfies those criteria. In the following, a concept of biological function is developed and applied to a neurobiological model of schizophrenia. It concludes that current evidence does not warrant the claim that schizophrenia stems from a biological dysfunction, and, in fact, that unusual neural structures associated with schizophrenia may have functional or adaptive significance. The fact that current evidence is ambivalent between these two possibilities (dysfunction versus adaptive function) implies that schizophrenia researchers should be much more cautious in using the 'dysfunction' label than they currently are. This has implications for both psychiatric treatment as well as public perception of mental disorders.

Keywords: Mental disorder, mental illness, function, dysfunction, schizophrenia, natural selection, neural selection, psychiatry